Saturday, September 28, 2013

Start electric car charging station business in 2014 [Community Resources]

Okay, I guess every one of us is aware of the changing world. Electric cars are on market. Every time I’m on the road, I see electric cars. This is an opportunity for those that want to start their own business but do not know which business.
Since 2008, president Obama has promoted hybrid vehicles. There is no doubt that in future everyone will be driving hybrid (electric cars) vehicles. I mean those cars that don’t use petroleum (gas) whatever you call it. In fact some say in future, one will have to buy the hybrid of choice and lease the These special batteries are important in electric cars because it is the special batteries that keep the electric hybrid car running. Why is this so long to introduce. Well, I wanted to explain that electric cars require recharge. They are similar to cell phones. When the energy gets low, you have to recharge the cell phone. So in future, we will be driving to electric car charging stations to recharge our electric cars. Those of you who studied basic economics principles know what I’m talking about.  As more and more electric cars are on the road, the more need for electric car changing stations.
Basically, you need to know automotive vehicle skills. If you are an amateur, don’t worry just educate yourself first. Things important to learn in an electric car charging station are differences between acid based batteries and lithium-ion batteries that are used in electric cars or hybrid cars.
Your customers are those people who are currently driving electric cares or hybrid cars. Also, those people contemplating of buying electric cars or hybrid cars future will be your customers.
The advantage is that people will want to stop remembering plugging to charge their electric car batteries. So they would drive their electric cars with the battery to your electric car charging station to charge the battery.
Where can you start you electric car charging business?
If you are based in U.S, contact your local authorities. This might be different in other countries. One thing you need to do is making sure that your electric car charging station is located in a busy place to serve large numbers of people. Also, you electric car charging station should be easily accessible and spotted from the main highway.
What types of license and registration do you need to start electric car charging station?
In United States, licensing requirements would be the same as for any automotive type of establishment as well as certification in handling hazardous materials. For detailed information on hazardous material contact U.S Environmental Protection Agency or you local authorities. I’m not sure about other countries. Remember that even in U.S, every local county, town, city have their own codes to enforce. It is therefore important to check before starting any type of business.

What are the risks of starting electric car charging station?
I did good research, electric car charging statin business are risk free. Except if you are in a country, state with no or few electric cars. This is why you should do your own market research before starting.

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Escherichia Coli Bacteria in Water 2014 [Community Resources]

Some types of bacteria are among water pathogens that cause disease and they are called pathogenic bacteria. Some bacteria cause diseases in humans, animals and plants. Although some bacteria make one particular host ill, other bacteria cause trouble in a number of hosts. This depends on the host susceptibility to bacteria. Many diseases caused by bacteria are different. For example, bacteria can lead food poisoning.
     Bacteria that contaminate water can be separated into two groups; pathogenic the ones that cause disease and non-pathogenic those that do not cause disease. Pathogenic bacteria which cause diseases such as typhoid fever, dysentery, gastroenteritis is common in water. For this reason, all water supplies should be tested for bacteria content before human use and consumption.
     One common type of bacteria found in water is Escherichia Coli also known as E.Coli.
E.Coli (Escherichia Coli) is a coliform bacteria organism which water specialist look for when testing drinking water. This bacterial organism is mostly found in the intestines and fecal matter of humans and animals.
     If Escherichia Coli is found in any water supply along with high nitrate and chloride levels, this indicates that human or animal waste has contaminated the water supply from a septic system or sewage system and has entered by way of runoff, a fractured well casing, or broken lines. Also, when coliform bacteria are present in water supply, it is an indication that disease-causing bacteria may also be present.
 According to the U.S national library of medicine, Escherichia Coli is a gram negative bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (Bernander, 1991). Bernander notes that most Escherichia strains are harmless. However, some serotypes cause serious food poisoning in humans and are responsible for food product recalls (Bernander, 1991). Bernander claims that the harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut and that they can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2 and prevents pathogenic bacteria within the intestine (Bernander, 1991).
     An Escherichia coli bacterium constitutes about 0.1% of gut flora (Parry, 2002).  Fecal-oral transmission is one of the route through which pathogenic strains of Escherichia bacterium can cause disease. This includes drinking water that contains fecal. Escherichia cells can survive outside the body for a limited amount of time. This fact indicates that Escherichia bacterium can survive in water bodies. This makes it an indicator that water bodies suspected of fecal contamination should be tested for Escherichia organisms.
     Science has shown a growing body of research that has examined environmentally persistent of Escherichia coli. For example, Spellman in his book Science of Water; concepts and applications, he notes that bacterial numbers increase significantly during storm events and a good river stream contains higher bacterial numbers during rainy seasons (Spellman, 2007).  Escherichia coli can survive for extended periods of time in water.  Also, the bacterium can be grown easily and inexpensively in a laboratory setting. Escherichia coli undergo cellular division by means of asexual reproduction. This is because there is no transfer of genetic material. The Escherichia bacterium is merely making an exact copy of itself. This is the most prevalent form of reproduction for Escherichia coli. The individual bacterium begins this process by the process known as elongation of the cell (Reed, 2005). This process is followed by the replication of the genome. A septum is formed and the cell equally divides the cellular components to form one copy of the parental genome (Reed, 2005). As the cell divides, it leaves two copies of the original bacterium called daughter cells (Reed, 2005).
     Escherichia bacteria also undergoes a process with direct cell to cell contact known as conjugation by which genetic material is transferred between two bacteria cells through a specialized type of conjugate fimbriae (Reed, 2005). This process is not sexual reproduction because there is no fusion of gametes present. This process is more infrequent than cell division. It should be noted that this process allows for a means of genetic diversity between bacteria and the possibility of beneficial adaptations like antibiotic resistance.
     Escherichia coli that contain a fertility factor also known as a plasmid undergo conjugation by first copying its genome (Reed, 2005).  This bacterium is called the donor because it releases an enzyme that contains signal which shows that it is ready for genetic transfer (Reed, 2005).  This enzyme attracts the bacteria that do not contain the fertility factor (Reed, 2005). It is therefore the recipient.  During the process, the donor Escherichia coli bacterium connects the sex pilus to the recipient bacterium and injects the plasmid. 
     In public health such as water treatment, the presence of Escherichia coli is used as an indicator to monitor the possible presence of other more harmful microbes, such as Cryptosporidium, Guardia, Shigella, and nor virus (Richards, 2003). Escherichia coli has some strains that is responsible for causing Traveler's diarrhea. The second Escherichia coli strain is the one which contaminates meat and leafy vegetables (Richards, 2003). This strain can cause serious hemorrhagic diarrhea and can have long term complications in humans. Therefore, diseases acquired from drinking or using contaminated water can cause gastrointestinal illness, skin, and respiratory, neurologic wound infections. Commonly reported diseases are diarrhea, stomach cramps and fever (Richards, 2003). 
     The U.S Public Health Department reports that children under the age of five, the elderly, and people whose health is compromised such as people who have long-term diseases like cancer or AIDS are at greater risk of severe illness.
     Also, according to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency report,  in some people, particularly children under 5 years of age and the elderly, Escherichia infection can cause a complication called hemolytic uremic syndrome, in which the red blood cells are destroyed and the kidneys fail. Symptoms from Escherichia coli disease infection usually appear within two to four days. It may also take up to eight days to manifest. According to the U.S Public Health Department, it is reported that most people recover without antibiotics or other specific treatment in five to ten days.
     However, it is advisable to consult with a physician if one experiences symptoms from Escherichia disease infection. U.S Environmental protection Agency states Infection with Escherichia disease is diagnosed by detecting the bacterium in the stool.
Most laboratories that culture stool do not test for Escherichia coli. Therefore it is important to request that the stool specimen be tested on sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) agar for this organism. Also, all persons who have diarrhea with blood should get stool test for Escherichia coli.
     The good part is that If one gets his or her water from a public water system, then his or her water system is required by law to notify him or her if water is not safe. Also, interested parties can obtain information about their drinking water by consulting the water quality Agency. Families are advised to contact the water quality agency to receive annual report on their local water systems.
     There are several options for private water supply to control Escherichia coli. These options include continuous chlorination, shock chlorination, ultra-violet radiation (UV), and boiling (distillation).  The above options, each has advantages and limitations.  However, they are all intended for use on clean and clear water. For example, depending on the water conditions, pretreatment can be necessary so that sediment and certain elements such as hardness, iron and manganese are eliminated prior to disinfection of the water. The pretreatment process helps disinfection process to be effective.
     Continuous chlorination is effective against Escherichia coli but safety issues in controlling highly concentrated chlorine such as the taste it gives to the water, time required and its variable effectiveness against other microorganisms remains the dilemma of this process. If safety precautions are regarded to the maximum, this is the most effective way of disinfecting water.
     Also, shock chlorination is a treatment option designed to kill Escherichia coli bacteria especially in wells. However, this is a temporary method to kill Escherichia coli bacteria. For this  option to work well on a temporary basis,  proper calculations must be made to accommodate the well depth, static water level, volume, and water pH in a given water stream. If this is not done properly, it may lead to inadequate disinfection of a given water stream.
     In addition to the above, Ultraviolet disinfection method uses natural radiation to deactivate bacteria's ability to reproduce and cause illness. This method has advantages and disadvantages. The ultroviolent disinfection advantages include; non-toxic products, no need to add hazardous chemicals, requires minimal space and needs very little maintenance. Also, ultraviolent systems are produced in many sizes to accommodate any household flow rate requirement which is necessarily for big communities or cities.

     The common method of disinfecting water to kill Escherichia coli bacteria is boiling it. This process involves heating the water until it turns to steam, then cooling the steam so it returns back to the liquid state. When water is heated, living Escherichia coli which is a living organism is destroyed, making the water free from bacteria. However, the limitation of the boiling method is the amount of water that can be produced in given period of time and the energy needed to boil this water.

      From this topic, I have learned that the presence of Escherichia coli bacteria is used as an indicator of possible sewage contamination. Also, I learned that Escherichia coli bacteria are commonly found in human and animal feces. Although they are generally not harmful themselves, they indicate the possible presence of pathogenic bacteria like viruses and protozoan’s that also live in human and animal digestive systems.
      Therefore, I understood that their presence in streams suggests that pathogenic microorganisms might also be present and that swimming and eating shellfish might be a health risk. Because it is difficult, time-consuming, and expensive to test directly for the presence of a large variety of pathogens, water is usually tested for Escherichia coli instead. More importantly, I learned that sources of fecal contamination to surface waters include wastewater treatment plants, on-site septic systems, domestic and wild animal manure and storm runoff.
     Also, I learned that the possible health risk associated with the presence of elevated levels of Escherichia coli bacteria, they can also cause cloudy water, unpleasant odors, and an increased oxygen demand.
     This topic made to understand that a number of diseases can be reduced by various mitigation strategies. For example ground beef contamination can be reduced by screening animals before slaughter to reduce the introduction of large numbers of pathogens in the slaughtering environment.
      Also, I learned that good hygienic slaughtering practices in beef producing industries can reduce contamination of carcasses. Although good hygiene does not guarantee the absence of Escherichia coli from water, good education in hygienic handling of foods for workers at water supply facilities is paramount. The only effective method of eliminating EHEC from foods is to introduce a bactericidal treatment, such as heating (e.g. cooking, pasteurization) or irradiation.
     In conclusion, Escherichia coli bacteria can be harmful to humans and animals. Understanding the life cycle of this bacterium, diseases it causes, symptoms and how to control its sources can help in controlling the spread of waterborne diseases. Also, it should be noted that water contains so many living microorganisms that cause disease. It is important to take precautionary measures all the time such as boiling drinking water.
Bernander, R.  Department of Microbiology, Uppsala University. (1991). The Escherichia coli cell cycle. Retrieved from website:

Parry, Sharon. "E. coli: Environmental Health Issues of VTEC O157." London; New York: Spon Press, 2002 fm.pdf

Reed, Jennifer Leanne. "Model Driven Analysis of Escherichia coli Metabolism." 2005

Gaffield, S., Goo, R., Richards, L., & Jackson, R. (2003). Public health effects of inadequately managed storm water runoff. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1527-1533.


Reaction of water and air we breath out [community Resources]

Reaction of water and air we breath out [community Resources]

The synthesis of  a nonmetallic oxide such as carbon dioxide  when added to water can form carbonic acid. This  chemical reaction can be an intended or not intentional  chemical reaction. Carbon dioxide is an dehydrated acid. When carbon dioxide is added to water it forms carbonic acid. Carbonic acid can dissociates into a proton (H+) and a bicarbonate ion.

The equation below represents the chemical reaction between carbon dioxide and water.

The consequence of the above chemical reaction is the formation of Carbonic acid. One can easily determine that the chemical reaction has taken place by testing for a weak acid (carbonic acid). When you observe that the reaction of the two can ionize to produce Hydrogen ions, it means that the chemical reaction has taken place.

This chemical reaction is an endothermic reaction. One general example is the reaction that takes place in plants. The energy comes from the sun that changes carbon dioxide and water into food for plants. This process in endothermic because it cannot happen with external source of energy. This is why water exposed to the atmosphere has a pH of around 5 and slightly acidic.

According to the website, the reaction between carbon dioxide and water is reversible (, 2010). Also, The above chemical reaction can be classified a synthesis.

According to the website (2012), carbon dioxide is acid base not a redox (, 2012),  .

Start a Community Computer Space Sharing business in 2013 [Community Resources]

Well, you are here to find out how. Starting a Computer Space Business is one of the cheapest and easiest businesses to start. Understanding that not everyone wants to have a home computer presents an opportunity. Some people have computers at home that are basically not great for storing files or they are running out of memory. So having their files backed up at a community computer space sharing service can allow them to know that their files are safe without having extra costs of computer upgrades.
The number one skill needed to start a community computer space sharing business is computer skills. These skills should include ones ability to organize and creativity to keep track of the services provided to ones customers.
What does one need to start a community computer space sharing business?
To start a community computer space sharing business, you must have computer networks.
Secondly you need large amount of file space and memory on you network in order to start a community computer space sharing business.
Thirdly, you need the skills required to name and store the files securely on a community computer space-sharing network. This should be based on the size of the files. For example, the larger the scale of the community computer space sharing files, the larger the space, capacity and network you will need on your community computer space sharing network.
So how is a community computer space sharing business green? Why would people want to use your community computer sharing space?
A community computer space sharing business is green because people will not upgrade their home computers or buy new computers to store files.
The customers for the community computer space sharing will be people that have large files and are in need of backing them up. People who would want to protect their documents. One must understand that many people have out dated computer systems and some have lost storage space on their hard drive.
What is the market size for a community computer space sharing business?
The market size for a community computer space sharing business is unlimited. Today, almost everyone use email. Sometimes, people attach documents, photos when communicating this means that there are more of these files to either save or delete.
What are the risks of having a community computer space sharing business?

The fact that you will be backing up so many files and so much information that people consider irreplaceable on your community computer space-sharing network, makes it important that you get a well dependable network and insure your business against failure of the system or network.

A community computer space sharing business can be started in any area were people are or may need additional computer space for their files and important documents.

Again, your support is very welcome. If you feel that my work has helped you and you'd like to support my mission to spread ideas like honesty, openness, unconditional love, and courage, please make a donation below. I'm very grateful for your support.

Being supported by my readers enables me to give my creative output (articles, podcasts, and newsletters) to the public domain, so it isn't copyrighted. Please share it freely so that others may benefit from it.

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What You Don't Know About DDT

DDT or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

DDT stands for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, which is an insecticide. This insecticide is a tasteless, odorless, white crystal solid. It had been known for it great wonders in the fight against malaria. DDT made its name when countries like Taiwan, Jamaica and Sardinia were declared malaria-free (Easton, 2011). Many countries including United States used DDT as a pesticide before is was banned in 1972 (EPA, 2012). Although DDT chemical had its downside, it proved to be more effective  than any other chemical in the fight of malaria (mosquitoes).   


However,  Easton (2011) explains that after the success stories of DDT use, an ecologist known as Carson published "Silent Spring" after her study ecological damage caused by the widespread use of DDT. Carson (1962), argument was that humans were also vulnerable to toxic substances in the environment caused by pesticides like DDT, which could be from the relationship between humans and the natural environment (Carson, 1962). To a greater extent, Carson’s argument is ecologically true but we should remember that for this to happen, humans need to be living and there should have been actual incidences. The fact that malaria was killing and still kills humans in many countries, should have been one major reason to continue the use of DDT.  Many opponents of DDT also argued that malaria female anopheles mosquitoes had become resistant to DDT chemical. This is not the case in all continents or countries. Yes, mosquitoes in some continents or countries might have been resistant to DDT chemical but not in all countries because some countries did not even use DDT chemical to fight mosquitoes.

In my opinion, DDT should have been banned in countries where mosquitoes became resistant to DDT chemical and had caused human death or environmental damages that resulted from the use of DDT. On the one hand, DDT should still be used in countries where mosquitoes are not resistant to DDT chemical. My argument is based on the fact that malaria has been a threat and continues to kill millions every day in many countries especially in Africa where DDT was not extensively used.

Start a Green Herbal Medical School [Community Resources]

Green Herbal Medical School

Those that have visited Asia and Africa can tell. Herbal medicine is universal especially in developing countries. Remember history has shown that herbal medicine is effective in treating diseases.  However, the challenge is that there are no books, libraries, sources, specialized universities and standardized methodologies to deliver the herbalist education. In many countries, older people have the knowledge of herbal medicine. In some countries such as Uganda, I saw people using herbal medicine to immunize their children. They term this as “Kyogero”  The “kyogero”  is a mixture of different plants (which I don’t know of course) the plants are boiled in hot water. The water tends to change to green after boiling it with the mixed plants. Parents use this water to shower their babies. According to unrecorded history of Uganda, people used to live longer than 90 years. However, these days the life expectancy for Ugandans both males and females is below 55 years. Remember that Uganda is now using modern medicine to immunize children. So what does this represent?
What is green herbal medicine?  
According to the University of  Maryland Medical Center,  it is noted that herbal medicine can also be called botanical medicine or phytomedicine. The university explains that herbal medicine refers to using  plant seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes.

Why should I start a green herbal medical school?

In United States and many other countries, herbal medicine is unregulated. There are many reasons as to why herbal medicine is unregulated in United States. We all know United States is a source of most innovations. Authorities in United States have no reason to regulate herbal medicine since studies proved to be both positive and negative. This is why authorities in United States have invested in university research. Methodologies are being developed to have a standardized herbal medical treatment. So to me this is an opportunity to start a green herbal medical school. Starting a green herbal medical school will not only help to create jobs but also will help in organizing methodologies, prevent the death of herbal medicine and will help improve our environment.  Today, many of us take plants for granted. If someone asked you to state the importance of plants to human, you will be surprised of the answers.
What are the advantages of starting a green herbal medical school?
Any university needs libraries, archives, research labs and so on. After developing herbal medicine libraries, archives, research labs and methodologies of delivering herbal medicine, students that graduate from your university can easily start they own practices after school. Note that Herbal medicine is not regulated in United States and many other countries. This means that you do not need a license to practice herbal medicine in countries where it is not regulated.

What are the challenges of starting a green herbal medical school?
1.     Finding professors with knowledge about herbal medicine might not be an easy task.
2.     Sources of herbal medicine may need greater investment because you will need to grow different plants for research.
3.     Authorities may at one point regulate herbal medicine. However, it should be noted that regulation always comes with both positive and negative effects. So this is not a big deal.
4.     Finding students who may be interested in studying herbal medicine may require extensive marketing and advertisement.
5.     Many other challenges may pop up. So keep that in mind.
Where can I start a green herbal medical school?
In general all developing countries are good places to start herbal medical schools. Developing countries have had herbal medical practices in the past but not standardized. Developing countries have fewer medical regulations compared to developed countries. My suggestions would be China, Brazil, Colombia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Congo and Rwanda.

Land Ownership [Community Resources]

Land Ownership and Farming is the Engine of the Third World National life [Community Resources]

Many of us who pursue a profession in life never think about farming and land ownership, as one major profession man has to do.  The first profession as a basic support of all labor and all division of human labor is tearing the land (farming) as well as owning it, feeding oneself and taking care of earth. Therefore farming, land ownership and animal husbandry are the first profession and the engine of every nation.

One of the things used against black people, were black codes and slave codes that were used in America against black people. Black people had no right to own land. Black people in America were prohibited from buying or renting farmland except in designated areas, which were all black but white controlled. One can assert that in Africa today, blacks can freely buy land but these nations are white controlled.

In America, black people were prohibited from selling farm products such as hay, cotton, rice extra without written permission from a white man. Thus, this undermined black operated agribusinesses and eliminated the potential threat of competition of black people in farming. In first years when black people in America were freed from slavery, black people had a massed more than 15 million acres of land mostly in the south. However, blacks lFarming is the Engine to our National Lifeost the land due to increased debt and lynching in the south. Blacks moved from south to north to work for industrialists and currently in 2013, 80 percent of black people live in Ghettos and many are homeless.

What is my point?Land Ownership

Ownership of land is basic of independence. When one owns land, he or she can be able to farm, feed and sell the surplus. In order to be self-independent, you must start by buying or getting land. You must not let your and my children be beggars for home, facilities, clothing, food and means of providing a living. A prime requisite for independence, wealth and freedom is having one’s own land. The acquisition of land has been the factor for more wars than any other cause on this earth planet. Also, economists agree that in order for any type of nation or system, let it be capitalism or communism, democracy or totalitarian or whatever you may have, there my must be ownership of land.